John Astley Cooper in 1900, wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan Britannic Pan Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". In 1911, in London, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United Kingdom competed. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam as the manager of the Canadian track and field team, strongly lobbied for the proposal of organising the British Empire Games. The event, which later became known as the Commonwealth Games was first held in 1930, in Hamilton, Canada, and has taken place every four years since then.
Games were known as the British Empire Games, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games, British Commonwealth Games and finally from 1978 as Commonwealth Games. The Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF). The fourth games in Montreal, Canada in 1942, and the fifth edition in Cardiff, Wales, in 1946 were cancelled due to WWII. Although there are currently 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams currently participate in the Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. Only Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales have attended every Games. 19 cities in 9 countries have hosted the event and there are a total of 22 sports.