Underwater sports include more than 10 different sports. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) (or the World Underwater Federation) is an international federation that represents underwater activities in underwater sport, founded in Monaco in 1959. CMAS include aquathlon, finswimming, freediving, underwater hockey, orienteering, underwater rugby, spearfishing, sport diving, target shooting and underwater photography and video. Other underwater sports with international competitions are underwater football and underwater ice hockey.
Aquathlon was created and developed during the 1980s in the former USSR, by Igor Ostrovsky. Finswimming developed in Europe following the ready availability of the first rubber fins during the 1930s. Competitive freediving is currently governed by two world associations, AIDA International and CMAS. Underwater hockey originated in England in 1954, while underwater rugby originated in Germany during the early 1960s. Orienteering was developed in the USSR by underwater divers during the late 1950s. Spearfishing has been used throughout the world for millennia, but modern spearfishing history evolved in the 1920s and 1930s.
The creation of sport diving is attributed to Marifé Abad, in Zaragoza, Spain who developed it during the years 1998 to 2000. Underwater target shooting was developed in France during the early 1980s as part of a winter season training regime for spearfishing. Underwater photography was developed prior to 1985 as a photographic film-based event. Underwater football was developed in the 1960s by Dave Murdoch. Underwater ice hockey originated in Austria in 2005 when Christian Redl came up with the sport.